41stMEMORIAL OF DR MANGALISO ROBERT SOBUKWE’S DEATH

Dr. Motsoko Pheko

Dr. Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe died on 27th February 1978.Forty one years after his death, history shows that he was an outstanding revolutionary pace setter. Frantz Fanon the renowned author of a book called THE WRETCHED OF THE EARTH has observed and profoundly stated that “Each generation in its relative nebulosity must discover its mission, and then fulfil it or betray it.”

 Sobukwe, a university lecturer at Witwatersrand University in Johannesburg; discovered his mission and then fulfilled it. He never betrayed his mission for his colonially landdispossessed people.

His mission became public nationally and internationally when his first political step resulted in the destruction of the enslaving colonial law – the “Dom Pass,” in South Africa. This inhuman law had conditioned the African people to regard their colonisers as demigods.

The Sharpeville Uprising which Sobukwe initiated with his Pan Africanist Congress comrades and led on 21st March 1960 changed the South African politics and the thinking of the world drastically, dramatically and irreversibly.

It was not an overstatement when Frantz Fanon a man with impeccable revolutionary credentials wrote,“Sharpeville [Uprising] shook public opinion for months, in newspapers, over the wavelengths, and in private conversations. Sharpeville has become a symbol. It is through this, that men and women in the world became acquainted with the problem of apartheid in South Africa.”

Paul Sauer an apartheid colonial Acting Prime Minister admitted the uniqueness of the Sharpeville Uprising led by Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe when in April 1960 said, “The old book of South Africa was closed a month ago…for the immediate future, South Africa will have to reconsider in earnest and honestly, her approach to the Native question….We must alter theconception of baaskop” (white supremacy).

No leader has ever shaken South Africa as did Mangaliso Sobukwe unaided by foreign forces and relying completely on the African people who were earlier mentally liberated through the first Pan Africanist Congress campaign called “the status campaign.”

The Chamber of Commerce in South Africa was also affected. It handed a memorandum to the apartheid colonialist regime. In part it read, “The immediate cost has been loss…of production, general unrest, diversion of our man power to military service.”

A prominent African scholar Prof. Z.K. Matthews, one time also Treasurer of the ANC writing, in the IMVO newspaper said, “The Pan Africanist Congress is an historical exception.

It broke away from the ANC and launched the well-known Sharpeville Uprising which had a unique national and international significance and changed the cause of political history in this country.

 It prompted a first visit ever to South Africa by the Security Council, the supreme body of the United Nations whose Secretary-General was Dag Hammarsjoeld. He was a Swedish. The PAC launched the most significant movement for South Africa’s international isolation.”

For his part Prof. Bernard Leeman, a British academic has written, “In the aftermath of the Sharpeville Uprising, Whites flocked to the Canadian and Australian High Commission Offices in Pretoria. They enquired about emigration. Many Whites bought guns. The helmeted troops patrolled the streets. In a single day the Pan Africanist Congress had changed South Africa forever.”

As if not wanting to be left behind on the issue of Sobukwe and PAC world-shaking political blow; Dr. Ismail Mohammed, a Mathematics lecturer has written, “Sharpeville stands out as a turning point in our history. In the aftermath of the Sharpeville Uprising when the horrible magnitude of the tyrant became clear, the lines were drawn and gave birth to forces destined to determine the destiny of our country.”(Natal Mercury newspaper 1 March 1981)

A notable African journalist Lewis Nkosi who later won himself a Harvard University scholarship in America, has written about the PAC President Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe. He has described him as “a tall, distinguished-looking African leader, who at the age of 36 has a rare distinction of having scared Dr. Verwoerd’s government out of its wits….”

He continues, “In March 1960, Robert Sobukwe, President of the banned Pan Africanist Congress helped to orchestrate a crisis that panicked the South African government and nearly brought about the kind of political anarchy which too often, makes possible transference of power over night.”(African Report April 1962)

In the entire history of the world, no parliament ever made a law to govern one person. But in South Africa the “Sobukwe Clause” is a law which was made by the apartheid colonialist regime, precisely to govern one man called Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe.

No liberation movement was banned in South Africa until Sobukwe and the Pan Africanist Congress founded and confronted the forces of colonialism and apartheid. The PAC was the first political liberation movement to be declared an illegal organisation in South Africa.

Johannes Balthazar Vorster the apartheid colonialist regime’s Minister of Justice described Sobukwe as “Heavy Weight” when compared with ANC leaders. Commenting on the “Sobukwe Clause” in the South African apartheid colonial parliament, he said:

 “Then we come to the Sobukwe Clause…I appreciate the principle of this clause is concerned with the security of the state. It does not relate to any other crime….I have respect for the attitude of Member for Houghton [Helen Suzman]….But I want to say to her…if her amendment were to succeed and Robert Sobukwe released[from Robben Island prison], we would have a fine(penalty) to pay in this country.”

He added, “… here we are dealing with a person…who has a magnetic personality, a person who can organise, a person who feels he has a vocation to perform this task, well knowing what methods will be applied.”

 Fifteen days after the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) leaders and Sobukwe and his comrades such as Zephaniah Mothopeng, P.K. Leballo, A.B. Ngcobo, Selby Ngendane, were imprisoned and the PAC declared an illegal organisation; South Africa’s Minister of Justice Francois Erasmus told the colonial parliament in Cape Town that:

“The PAC aim is to bring to its knees any government in South Africa which stands for white supremacy andwhite leadership. They do not want peace and order. What they want is not one pound a day for all the Bantu (Africans) in South Africa. What they want is ‘OUR COUNTRY’ (Izwe Lethu!).”

Of course, just seven years earlier in 1953 before Sobukwe and his colleagues emerged in the politics of South Africa; J.G. Strydom the apartheid colonial Prime Minister of the day had just stated clearly, “Our policy is that the Europeans must stand their ground and must remain Baas (master) in South Africa….Our view is that in every sphere, the European must retain the right to rule the country and to keep it white man’s country.”

Colonialist Apartheid Regime Was Determined To See Sobukwe Dead

The apartheid colonialist regime tried every trick in its bag to kill Sobukwe. In Robben Island prison they kept him in solitary confinement as a way of destroying his mind. The damaging effects of solitary confinement have been confirmed by psychiatrists and researchers.

“The first major research emerged from the debriefing of United States soldiers who were prisoners during the Korean War at the start of 1950. Since then, the experiences of many other victims have been studied….It is now well known that, as a person’s contact with others is reduced, so psychological functions become distorted.

In Sobukwe, the first effects were apparent when he said that he was forgetting how to speak, and in the difficulties he had in concentrating on his studies. All this was predictable….Still more effects were inevitable when Sobukwe’s confinement went on day after day, month after month, year after year, and with no end in sight.

He was in hostile environment, surrounded by prison warders who viewed him either with malevolence or indifference; and who on occasion gave him decayed food. He was an alien being who was guarded round the clock. He and his organisation [Pan Africanist Congress] were being persecuted.”(How Can Man Die Better: Sobukwe And Apartheid Benjamin Progrund page 302-303Peter Halban Publishers Ltd 1990)

 In Robben Island Prison Sobukwe found also broken glass in his food. Mrs Veronica Zondeni Sobukwe, the icon’s wife, a nurse by profession confirmed this before the T R C. She told this Commission, “Before jail my husband was fit and healthy. He went to the University everyday to lecture. He never missed a lecture. But after his imprisonment in Robben Island his health deteriorated immensely.”( TRUTH AND RECNCILIATION COMMISSION Human Rights Violations Submissions by Zondeni Veronica Sobukwe,Questions And Answers 12 May 1997 Case:EC0155/97ALB Kingwilliamstown Day 1, Benjamin Progrund Ibid page 202 and SOBUKWE LED THE ROAD TO ROBBEN ISLAND by Motsoko Pheko page 2 TOKOLOHO [FREEDOM] BOOKS 2014)

                 FRUITS OF SOBUKWE’S LEADERSHIP

The fruits of Sobukwe’s leadership are reflected in the following historical events; nationally and internationally:

  1. For the first time in the political history of South Africa, the United Nations Security Council became seized with the problem of South Africa from the Sharpeville Uprising in April 1960 to April 1994.
  2. The United Nations General Assembly accepted the resolution by the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania, a liberation movement led by Sobukwe challenging the international status of South Africa as a “sovereign independent state in international law.”

Confirming this fact, Prof. Tom Lodge has written, “In November 1974, PAC lobbyists succeeded in obtaining the expulsion of South Africa from theUnited Nations and in 1975, the Organisation of African Unity(OAU) Meeting in Kampala, adopted as official policy a long document prepared by the PAC arguing the case for the illegality of South Africa’s status.”

  • The United Nations Formed the Special Committee Against Apartheid and began to assist the oppressed African people in various ways, especially in education and a small stipend for refugees from South Africa.
  • In 1982 the Pan Africanist Congress was granted an observer status in the United Nations General Assembly since South Africa was no longer recognised as a state in international law. The ANC benefited from this PAC international victory; even though since June 1955, the ANC had held that South Africa was not a colony, but a “sovereign state.”
  • The United Nations General Assembly through its Resolution 2396(XXIXXX) declared March 21st each year, International Day For The Elimination Of Racial Discrimination. This was in honour of Pan Africanist Congress members and supporters who were massacred in Sharpeville, Langa, Evaton, Vanderbijl Park and in many other parts of the country, on 21st March 1960.

This day is still called Sharpeville Day, despite attempts by those who were not involved in this important history, to change this name in their vain attempt to bury the historic significance of the Sharpeville Uprising and colonially ignore the patriotic revolutionary forces that were involved.

Yes, the ANC leaders were conspicuous by their absence at this historic turning point in the politics of South Africa (Azania).This was despite the fact that Sobukwe the President of the Pan Africanist Congress had written to the ANC inviting them to take part in the 21st March 1960 uprising.

On the eve of the Sharpeville Uprising the ANC Secretary-General Duma Nokwe replied by issuing a statement in the European newspaper, the Sunday Time s of the 20th March. His media statement to sabotage what was to be later called Sharpeville Uprising read:

“We must avoid sensational actions which might not succeed because we realise that it is treacherous to the liberation movement to embark on a campaign which has not been properly prepared for and which has no reasonable prospect of success.”

A white newspaper for its part later wrote, “ The Pan Africanist Congress…is an extremist political organisation with a cry Africa for Africans….It has accepted the ‘Accra line’ (reference to President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana)….The ANC has rejected the invitation.”(The STAR Johannesburg 21 March 1960)

Sobukwe was a decisive and informed leader not controlled by any colonialists. On 20th March 1960 he had issued final instructions to all members of the Pan Africanist Congress taking part in the anti-pass campaign. It read:

“Sons and daughters of the soil, on Monday, 21st of March [1960], we launch our positive decisive action campaign against the pass laws. Exactly at 7 a.m. we launch. Oh yes, we launch –there is no doubt about it, all over. We have reached the cross roads. We have crossed our historical Rubicon. Izwe Lethu!….

This is not a game. We are not gambling. We are taking our first step in the march to Africa’s independence and the United States of Africa….Let us get that clear….the[ apartheid colonialist] rulers are going to be extremely ruthless. But we must meet their brutality with calm and iron determination. We are fighting for the noblest cause on earth, the liberation of mankind.

They are fighting to entrench an out worn anachronistic vile system of oppression. We represent progress. They represent decadence. They represent the rancid smell of decaying vegetation. We have a whole continent on our side. We have history on our side.”

Further Fruits Of Sobukwe’s Leadership And Achievements Of The Pan Africanist Congress of Azania.

  • The United Nations General Assembly declared apartheid a crime against humanity through its 1973 International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. Sobukwe’s leadership through the Pan Africanist Congress internationalised apartheid to a point where it declared apartheid a crime against humanity.
  • The first military wing of a liberation movement in South Africa was formed by Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe and his colleagues on 11 September 1961.

This guerrilla wing of the Pan Africanist Congress was initially called POQO (later the Azanian Peoples’ Liberation Army in 1968).Of POQO, a Witwatersrand University professor has written, “The largest and most sustained insurrection in South Africa in modern times was mounted by POQO, the underground wing of the outlawed Pan Africanist Congress….

The persistence of the movement over a relatively long time span and over a large geographical area, qualifies POQO to lay claim to being the most sustained insurrection by blacks in modern times….The Pan Africanist Congress insurgents were very much numerous than Umkhonto[of the ANC]….

In terms of geographical extensiveness, the numbers involved and its time span, the POQO conspiracies…represent the largest and most sustained African insurrectionary movement since the inception of modern political organisations in South Africa,”

All this happened under the leadership of Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe and his PAC comrades.

Prof. Tom Lodge has spilled other beans about the liberation history of this country (Azania/South Africa). Let me use his own words from his book Resistance And Ideology In Settler Societies –Southern African Studies Volume 4. He writes:

“The military wing of the PAC – POQO not only inspired activities in South Africa, but Pan Africanist Congress insurgents were very much more numerous than Umkhonto [of ANC]…in terms of geographic extensiveness, the members involved and its time span. The POQO conspiracies represented the longest and most sustained insurrection in South Africa in modern times.”

  • The first guerrillas to wage the armed struggle and die in military confrontation against the forces of the apartheid colonialist regime were those of POQO/Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA).

This was the first armed struggle in South Africa after the 1906 when such struggle was led by Nkosi Bambatha. For 55 years there was no armed struggle against colonialism in South Africa. The armed struggle in South Africa in modern times was started by Sobukwe and his PAC comrades such as P.K. Leballo, Zephaniah Mothopeng and T.M. Ntantala.

POQO/APLA is senior to Umkhonto of the ANC, Mkhonto. The ANC Mkhonto found POQO/APLA long in the military trenches. POQO fought in guerrilla battles such as Mbashe, Ntlonze; Paarl long before Mkhonto started its own fighting. By the way history has registered that Umkhonto was the first to suspend the armed struggle under the instructions of the ANC. Their mother body was heading for “negotiations” which never addressed the colonial land dispossession of the African people.

The PAC guerrilla fighters were also the first to be subjected to the brutality of the terrorist apartheid colonialist regime. Seventeen of them were later hanged in one day by the apartheid colonialist regime.

 Four of them came from one family alone, the Vulindlela family. This was after the Battle of Mbashe in the Cape Province (today’s Eastern Cape).These patriotic sons of Africa were Shelegu Vulindlela, Maliza Vulindlela, Sandungo Vulindlela and Bonase Vulindlela.

One family whose sons were members of the PAC lost four sons for the liberation of this country. Were they remembered when the 1994 “New South Africa” regime came to power?

9. In modern times the first political prisoners to be imprisoned on Robben Island were members and leaders of the Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) under the leadership of Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe. The first batch of them, were imprisoned in Robben Island on 12th October 1962. Nelson Mandela was imprisoned in Robben Island on 6th June 1964. He was transferred from here to Pollsmoor in 1982 and then to Victor Vester in 1988.

10. Leaders In Front: It must never be forgotten that in the campaigns that the ANC undertook it was always the masses that were in front and often the only ones arrested and imprisoned. It is Sobukwe who came up with the new style and slogan of “leaders in front.”

That is why after the Sharpeville Uprising the PAC leaders were the first to be imprisoned at Stofberg and other South African prisons. They were followed there by the African masses, not the other way round. It is the case also with imprisonment in Robben Island.

The leaders were in front. They were followed there by the African masses. PAC leaders and members were the first to be imprisoned in Robben Island. That was on 12th October 1962.They were together all resisting European colonialism, land dispossession and the myth of “white supremacy.”

The imprisonment of these PAC leaders and members in Robben Island was the first since Makana (Makhanda) “the left-handed” was imprisoned in Robben Island in 1819, for leading a war of African national resistance against British colonialism.

This was also for the first time since Maqoma, Xhoxho, Fadana, Kenti, Dilima, Mathe, Mpafana and Mahala were imprisoned on Robben Island in 1859 for waging another war of national resistance against colonialism. Mahala was a son of King Ndlambe of the AmaGcaleka Africans. Indeed, it was also since Langalibalele was imprisoned in Robben Island for fighting against European colonialism in 1874.

This means that there were no political prisoners in Robben Island Prison for 88 years until Sobukwe and his colleagues – PAC leaders and members were jailed there from 12th October 1962 upwards.

11. The longest serving prisoner on Robben Island in modern times was Jafta “Jeff” Masemola. He was a teacher and inventor. He was also among the first five other PAC political prisoners to be sentenced to life imprisonment in modern times. All this happened under the leadership of Sobukwe and his colleagues.

12. Sobukwe and his comrades were the first to be closest to President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Sobukwe gave Nkrumah very important critical information. That information enabled Dr. Nkrumah to realise that apartheid colonial South Africa was not a sovereign state in international law.

The Pan Africanist Congress representatives that Sobukwe had later despatched and deployed in Ghana were Peter ‘Molotsi (Pan African Affairs Secretary), Nelson “Nana” Mahomo (Secretary for Culture) and Peter N. Raboroko (Secretary for Education). They fully informed President Kwame Nkrumah that South Africa had been a British colony that the British colonial Government never decolonised. Sobukwe was a strong and unwavering Pan Africanist. He supported Kwame Nkrumah fully.

Of course, the apartheid colonialist regime had vowed never to do anything with Sobukwe and his Pan Africanist Congress comrades. Dr. Gert Viljoen, Minister of Constitutional Affairs in Frederick de Klerk’s apartheid colonialist regime in 1990 was earlier on record, in a London newspaper the Independent,  said:

 “We want to change our approach, but we would be negotiating even the name of the country. Many Blacks call it Azania. I think there is no likelihood of coming to agreement with them.

They are the extreme Pan Africanist Congress (PAC). The name Azania sounds a warning note of a break in history. In our thinking a complete break in history would be unacceptable. We will have to provide some continuation of the past.”

 Indeed, the continuation of the past is intact to this day, especially on land dispossession of the African people. That is why in 2018, after 24 years of ANC rule Africans now want “expropriation of land without compensation.” In CODESA, where “negotiations” with the ANC were done, and in Section 25 of the “New South Africa,” there is no mention of equitable distribution of land according to population numbers.

This demand was made by the South African Native National Congress to King George V in July 1914 in London in their petition. This was after Britain had colonised this African country named it, Union of South Africa on 20th September 1909.

This had been followed by the allocation of 93% of the African country to 349,837 colonial settlers and 7% allocated to over then five million Africans in what was called “Native Reserves”(Concentration Camps) for cheap Native labour. This was done through the Native Land Act 1913.

 Today the constitution of “New South Africa” talks of “property clause” which compensates the very people who acquired African land through colonial terrorism and expropriation. This means at gunpoint. This would have never happened under the leadership of Sobukwe and his Pan Africanist Congress colleagues.

 The African Liberation Struggle Is Continuation Of The Anti-Colonial Struggle Of African Kings And Queens

13. Sobukwe never separated the struggle of the African Kings which they fought in many wars of national resistance against colonial land dispossession of the African owners of this country. Sobukwe subscribed to a Heroes’ Day for the Kings and Queens and all patriots who resisted colonialism.

 On 31st July 1959, in a big meeting of Africans, he said,“ We are met here sons and daughters of the beloved land to drink from the fountain….We are here to draw inspiration from the heroes of Thababosiu, Isandlwana, Sandile’s Kop and numerous other battle fields where our forefathers fell before the bullets of the foreign invaders.”

Indeed, characteristic of his clear understanding of the nature and goal of the African liberation struggle; Sobukwe declared, “I wish to make it clear that we are anti-nobody. We are pro-Africa. We dream Africa. We live Africa: because Africa and humanity are inseparable.

History has taught us that a group in power has never voluntarily relinquished its position. It has always been forced to do so. And we do not expect miracles to happen in Africa. It is necessary for human progress that Africa be fully developed and only the African can do so….”

When he was in prison in Robben Island some members of the apartheid colonial parliament visited him. On return to Cape Town in parliament, one of these members told this parliament, “I asked Sobukwe, have you considered changing your ideology?” He replied, “Not until the day of the resurrection.”

Liberation without land repossession by a colonially dispossessed people is a gigantic colonial fraud. It is like inviting land dispossessed Africans to come and dance on the graves of their ancestors and spit on the graves of their Kings and Queens who resisted colonialism with their blood to the finish to defend their people from colonial terrorism.

Sobukwe denounced the preamble to the so-called “Freedom Charter” of the ANC as “a colossal fraud ever perpetrated upon the oppressed and degraded people. It is the product of the slave mentality and colonial orientation.”

Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe will remain an eminent eternal hero of the African liberation struggle that has still yet to continue what he and his comrades intended it to accomplish. The true history of liberation in Africa and internationally, reveals Sobukwe as a glittering example of dedicated and authentic leadership. He never betrayed his people especially on the issue of their land dispossession.

He is a leader that the national demand of brutalised colonised Africans called from the comfort of a university lecturer to sacrifice and suffer with his family, Mama Veronica Zondeni Sobukwe and their children for true liberation of his people.

14. He is the only leader in Azania (South Africa) who was imprisoned in Robben Island without even a mock trial. This was after he had served and completed his prison sentence for the 21st March 1960 Sharpeville Uprising.

From Robben Island he was banished to Kimberley. Here he was put under house arrest and required to be at his home between 7 P.M. and 6 A.M. He was forbidden to meet more than one person at time or to be quoted in a newspaper in any way, on any subject.

 Sobukwe is also the only political leader in South Africa who it has been reported the apartheid colonialist regime put broken glass in his food. He was also operated for some unknown reason in Robben Island, without the knowledge of his wife. This was raised during the sitting of the “Truth And Reconciliation Commission” which did much injustice to the victims of apartheid, declared a crime against humanity.

Veterans of the African Liberation Struggle Have Sealed Sobukwe’s Contribution In Glory

Of Sobukwe, A.P. Mda the successor Congress League President to Dr. Muziwakhe Antony Lembede has said, “He (Sobukwe) went on to develop our position mine and Lembede’s…to a higher level than that which we were.” (

In his tribute to Sobukwe, Nelson Mandela, although he has contradicted himself about Sobukwe in his book Long Walk To Freedom, where he talks of Sobukwe as “undisciplined;” he has nevertheless, in his tribute to Sobukwe said, “His life epitomised the cold, calculating, vindictive brutality of apartheid. His heart proclaimed the abiding humanity of liberation.”

Mandela has also noted that Sobukwe wrote the first version of the 1949 Programme of Action which was adopted in December 1949. It led to the Defiance Campaign Against Passes in 1952.

Godfrey Pitje the academic and lawyer who was the first African  to obtain an M.A. degree in sociology in South Africa and a staff member of Fort Hare University Faculty in its glorious days; has written of Sobukwe as “towering over us, even those of us on the staff, intellectually, from whatever angle. We readily recognised that he was exceptional chap.” (Benjamin Progrund Ibid page 29)

This is a man who in Robben Island some prison officials gave him rotten food. What did they want to achieve by this barbaric act? The enemies of the Azanian Revolution have tried to ignore Sobukwe’s leadership to the anti-colonial struggle of this country. They have lied to cover their nonentity and nincompoop thinking. But history does not lie. It has not lied about Sobukwe.

He has emerged as one of the most outstanding exemplary leaders of the liberation struggle in South Africa together with his sacrificing wife Mrs Zondeni Veronica Sobukwe (nee Mathe).

The suffering that the apartheid colonialist regime subjected her to because of the Pan Africanist leadership of her husband is beyond human endurance. But both she and her husband because of their love for their people and to see them truly liberated; they never surrendered to the forces of injustice, barbarism and colonial terrorism.

15. Sobukwe has impeccable credentials of a True African liberator. To the end of his life, the message of Sobukwe was the same as the one he stated in the colonial court on 15 April 1960. This is where he and his PAC comrades were charged for the world-shaking Sharpeville Uprising. I quote him:

 “Your Worship, it will be remembered that when this case began, we refused to plead, because we felt no moral obligation whatsoever to obey laws which are made exclusively by a white minority….But I would like to quote what was said by somebody before, that an unjust law cannot be justly applied.

We believe in one race only, the human race to which we all belong. The history of that race is a long struggle against all restrictions, physical, mental and spiritual.

We would have betrayed the human race if we had not done our share. We are glad to have made our contribution. We stand for equal rights for all individuals. But the whites have to accept allegiance to Africa first. Once a truly non-racial democracy exists in South Africa, all individuals, whatever their colour or race, will be accepted as Africans.

As individuals we do not count. We are but the tools of history which will always find new tools. We are not afraid of the consequences of our action and it is not our intention to ask for mercy. Thank you, Your Worship.”

Sobukwe knew that the struggle for liberation is not a dinner party. True freedom is not free. Sobukwe was very clear about this.

He declared, “We should not fear victimisation….We must fight for freedom, for the right to call our own souls our own. And we must pay the price. The price of freedom is blood, toil and tears.”

Those who evaded the truth over returning and restoring land colonially stolen from Africans have betrayed the African people. “Diplomacy” that compromises truth is fake diplomacy

That is why before he suffered what he suffered including imprisonment in Robben Island without even a mock trial and guarded by three armed European guards and two big vicious Allsatian dogs; Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe said:

“It is meet that we speak the truth before we die….There is plenty of suffering ahead. The oppressor will not take this lying down. But we are ready. We will not go back. Come what may…we are blazing a new trail. We invite you to be with us, creators of history.”

Forty one years after his death all serious politicians in South Africa speak on land repossession and Pan Africanism. Since June 1955 the ruling ANC party had denounced these legitimate African demands as “anti-white” for the pleasure of what the masters did to Azania and Africa in general, through the Berlin General Act of 26 February 1885.

Sobukwe remains admired and respected throughout Africa and the informed world. In 1985 the Ahmadu Bello University in Nigeria conferred an honorary degree of Doctor of Laws on Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe. In his citation the Dean said, “Honourable Chancellor, I present to you this courageous African nationalist, this strong believer in the principles of Pan Africanism, this great freedom fighter for liberation and unity of all Africans. This symbol of the struggle against apartheid; for the posthumous conferment of the honorary degree of Doctor Of Laws, Honoris Causa of Ahmadu Bello University.”

Long live Dr.Mangaliso Robert Sobukwe! Long live The Revolutionary Pace Setter Of The True African Liberation END

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